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Glossary

  • acute – A recently developed condition. For viral hepatitis, refers to the first six months of infection.
  • anaemia – A shortage of red blood cells or haemoglobin, or reduced ability of red cells to carry oxygen throughout the body.
  • antibody – A protein produced by the immune system in response to an antigen such as a foreign organism.
  • antigen – Something the immune system can recognise as foreign and attack, such as a piece of a virus.
  • biopsy – A small sample of tissue that can be examined for signs of disease.
  • cirrhosis – Advanced liver fibrosis or scarring that interferes with normal functioning.
  • decompensated – Severe cirrhosis or other liver damage that causes liver failure.
  • fibrosis – Damage to the liver as normal cells are replaced by scar tissue.
  • genotype – The genetic make-up of an organism. Hepatitis C has six major genotypes.
  • jaundice – Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes associated with liver and gallbladder problems.
  • liver – An organ involved in digesting food, storing nutrients, filtering toxins from the blood, processing drugs and other important functions.
  • NS5A inhibitor – Drugs that interfere with a hepatitis C protein necessary for viral reproduction.
  • polymerase inhibitor – Drugs that interfere with enzymes that copy genetic material as a virus reproduces.
  • protease inhibitor – Drugs that target the HIV or hepatitis C protease enzyme, which plays a role in building new virus particles.
  • replication – The process of viral reproduction.
  • seroconversion – When antibody status changes from negative to positive.
  • sustained virological response (SVR) – Long-term response to a drug. In the case of hepatitis C, undetectable viral load for a set period (usually 12 weeks) after completing treatment.
  • toxicity – Being poisonous to the body, or a symptom or side-effect showing that a drug is toxic.
  • undetectable – A level of viral genetic material (RNA or DNA) that is too low to be measured by a particular viral load test.

HIV & hepatitis

Published December 2017

Last reviewed December 2017

Next review December 2020

Contact NAM to find out more about the scientific research and information used to produce this booklet.

Hepatitis information

For more information on hepatitis visit infohep.org.

Infohep is a project we're working on in partnership with the European Liver Patients Association (ELPA) and the World Hepatitis Alliance.

Visit infohep.org >
This content was checked for accuracy at the time it was written. It may have been superseded by more recent developments. NAM recommends checking whether this is the most current information when making decisions that may affect your health.
Community Consensus Statement on Access to HIV Treatment and its Use for Prevention

Together, we can make it happen

We can end HIV soon if people have equal access to HIV drugs as treatment and as PrEP, and have free choice over whether to take them.

Launched today, the Community Consensus Statement is a basic set of principles aimed at making sure that happens.

The Community Consensus Statement is a joint initiative of AVAC, EATG, MSMGF, GNP+, HIV i-Base, the International HIV/AIDS Alliance, ITPC and NAM/aidsmap
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This content was checked for accuracy at the time it was written. It may have been superseded by more recent developments. NAM recommends checking whether this is the most current information when making decisions that may affect your health.

NAM’s information is intended to support, rather than replace, consultation with a healthcare professional. Talk to your doctor or another member of your healthcare team for advice tailored to your situation.