Poor adherence and the subsequent development of drug resistance is one reason why HIV treatment can fail. A drug-resistant HIV strain is one which is less susceptible to the effects of one or more anti-HIV drugs.

Resistance: latest news

Resistance resources

  • Drug resistance

    It's important to always take your HIV treatment at the right times and in the right amounts. If you don't, HIV may become drug resistant.When...

    From: The basics

    Information level Level 1
  • Changing HIV treatment

    Talk to your doctor if you are concerned about any side-effects you are experiencing.If you are having problems taking your HIV treatment, it’s important to be honest...

    From: Factsheets

    Information level Level 2
  • Taking your HIV treatment (adherence)

    Taking your medication exactly as prescribed is key to HIV treatment working.As treatment is a long-term commitment, it’s important that your treatment suits your lifestyle.If you find...

    From: Factsheets

    Information level Level 2
  • My drugs chart

    My drugs chart provides information on all the anti-HIV drugs currently licensed for use in Europe.Select your chosen drugs and drag them onto the area...

    From: My drugs chart

  • What is drug resistance?

    One of the possible consequences of not taking your HIV treatment properly is that your HIV will develop resistance to anti-HIV drugs. This section of the booklet provides...

    From: Booklets

    Information level Level 2
  • Resistance tests

    Blood tests are available which detect whether the HIV in your body is resistant to any anti-HIV drugs. It's recommended that you have a drug resistance test before...

    From: Booklets

    Information level Level 2
  • Taking your HIV treatment

    This booklet provides basic information about how HIV treatment works, what taking it involves and how to manage it in your life....

    From: Booklets

    Information level Level 2
  • Drug resistance

    HIV reproduces in the body very quickly, making billions of new viruses every day by replicating its genetic material. HIV is a retrovirus; retroviruses have an inherently high...

    From: HIV treatments directory

    Information level Level 4

Resistance in your own words

Resistance news from aidsmap

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Resistance news selected from other sources

  • Drug-Resistance Mutations May Curb Efficacy of Dolutegravir-Based Regimens in Zimbabwe Teens With HIV

    "Public health (officials) should definitely be aware of the implications of drug resistance mutations conferring resistance to tenofovir and/or lamivudine on the activity, efficacy and durability of DTG in such a country, knowing that at present, individual- level HIV drug resistance testing in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is rare and that data are lacking on DTG use in settings with limited or no viral load monitoring."

    07 July 2019 | Medscape (free registration required)
  • Genotype Testing at HIV Diagnosis Provides No Benefit

    For the majority of people with HIV in the US, the current treatment guidelines recommend an integrase strand inhibitor paired with an NRTI as first-line ART. Therefore, baseline genotype results currently guide the choice of initial NRTI pair, given transmitted NRTI resistance (NRTI-R). With this evolution of HIV treatment, the role and value of baseline genotype testing has become uncertain. This study determined the clinical and economic value of baseline genotype testing for people newly diagnosed with HIV in the US.

    25 June 2019 | Infectious Disease Advisor
  • A Mysterious Infection, Spanning the Globe in a Climate of Secrecy

    The rise of Candida auris embodies a serious and growing public health threat: drug-resistant germs. Over the last five years, it has hit a neonatal unit in Venezuela, swept through a hospital in Spain, forced a prestigious British medical center to shut down its intensive care unit, and taken root in India, Pakistan and South Africa.

    08 April 2019 | New York Times
  • Can high-dose dolutegravir be a rescue therapy?

    A small study in Italy found that high doses of the powerful integrase inhibitor dolutegravir (Tivicay, and also found in Juluca and Triumeq) can be used as a key part of rescue therapy for people with HIV that has extensive drug resistance to treatment. When doctors doubled the dose typically prescribed for treatment-experienced people to 100 mg twice daily, they found that high-dose dolutegravir was well absorbed with no occurrence of neuropsychiatric or serious side effects.

    12 March 2019 | CATIE
  • Should we be concerned some gay men are buying antibiotics online for STIs?

    A leading online provider of PrEP also sells the antibiotic doxycycline - but why are people buying it and why are health organizations concerned?

    28 December 2018 | Gay Star News
  • Resistance to second-line ARTs increasing in South Africa

    An increasing number of HIV patients in the Western Cape and other parts of South Africa are experiencing resistance to second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART). The Star reports that this was revealed by the fifth South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence, Behaviour and Communication Survey conducted last year by the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC). The survey found resistance to ARVs in 27.4% of the respondents who were not virally suppressed.

    14 December 2018 | Medical Brief
  • Uganda:15 Percent HIV-Positive Ugandans Resistant to Drugs - Report

    Nearly two in every 10 people living with HIV in Uganda are resistant to antiretroviral (ARVs) drugs, according to findings in a study report that Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI) released yesterday. This, the researchers said, requires them to switch to more expensive and scarce medicines.

    13 September 2018 | AllAfrica
  • Ibalizumab Provides New Option for Patients with Multidrug-Resistant HIV

    A newly published phase 3 study of patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) HIV shows that ibalizumab can be a safe and effective option for patients with limited other avenues of treatment.

    23 August 2018 | MD Magazine
  • New HIV therapy reduces virus, boosts immunity in drug-resistant patients

    Ibaluzimab, a CD4 receptor inhibitor and the first monoclonal antibody developed as an anti-HIV drug, was approved for treatment in the US for people with multiply drug-resistant HIV (MDR-HIV) last February. In the results of a phase III study published today, 83% of a group of patients with MDR-HIV achieved an undetectable viral load on ibaluzimab and 50% maintained this over six months. Details of this and another phase III study will be presented later htis year.

    16 August 2018 | Science Daily
  • Reported 'PrEP Failure' in Thailand May Be a Missed Acute HIV Infection: Here's What You Need to Know

    The Infectious Diseases Society of America reported on June 29, 2018, that a new HIV acquisition had been found in a person using pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). According to the journal article, a 28-year-old cisgender male in Thailand began using PrEP on March 16, 2016, after being verified HIV negative by a third generation antibody test. However the third generation antibody test available in this case has a window period of three to 12 weeks, with 3% of the population still testing HIV negative after 12 weeks. This is why clinical testing sites use RNA testing whenever possible, as the RNA test from May 13 did show positive for HIV while the third generation antibody test on the same day showed HIV negative.

    17 July 2018 | TheBody PRO
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Our information levels explained

  • Short and simple introductions to key HIV topics, sometimes illustrated with pictures.
  • Expands on the previous level, but also written in easy-to-understand plain language.
  • More detailed information, likely to include medical and scientific language.
  • Detailed, comprehensive information, using medical and specialised language.
Community Consensus Statement on Access to HIV Treatment and its Use for Prevention

Together, we can make it happen

We can end HIV soon if people have equal access to HIV drugs as treatment and as PrEP, and have free choice over whether to take them.

Launched today, the Community Consensus Statement is a basic set of principles aimed at making sure that happens.

The Community Consensus Statement is a joint initiative of AVAC, EATG, MSMGF, GNP+, HIV i-Base, the International HIV/AIDS Alliance, ITPC and NAM/aidsmap

This content was checked for accuracy at the time it was written. It may have been superseded by more recent developments. NAM recommends checking whether this is the most current information when making decisions that may affect your health.

NAM’s information is intended to support, rather than replace, consultation with a healthcare professional. Talk to your doctor or another member of your healthcare team for advice tailored to your situation.