Ciprofloxacin (Ciproxin / Ciloxan)

Ciprofloxacin (Ciproxin / Ciloxan) is an antibiotic that is approved for treating several common bacterial infections. It is being tested in combination with other drugs for treating Mycobacterium avium intracellulare (MAI).

Ciprofloxacin is usually taken as tablets, although it can also be given in an intravenous form for treating urinary tract infections or gonorrhoea.

It belongs to the 4-quinolone family of drugs, which have occasionally been reported to cause seizures in some people. Other side-effects include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, headache and rash. Rare reports of peripheral neuropathy and tendon rupture have been reported in patients receiving this drug, as have hypersensitivity reactions.1 2

Ciprofloxacin can have dangerous interactions with the asthma treatments aminophylline (Minijet / Phyllocontin Continus) and theophylline (Nuelin SA / Slo-Phyllin / Uniphyllin Continus). It should be taken two hours apart from antacids, ddI (didanosine, Videx / VidexEC) or other drugs that reduce stomach acidity, and from vitamin supplements containing iron or zinc.3 Ciprofloxacin is best taken on an empty stomach.

It does not interact with any currently available protease inhibitors or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs).

Ciprofloxacin is manufactured by Bayer under the trade name Ciproxin.

Ciprofloxacin-resistant gonorrhoea is highly prevalent in the United States, the Pacific region, China, Japan and the Philippines. In Hawaii, prevalence reached 20% between 2000 and 2001.

The high prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant gonorrhoea led to the drug being abandoned as first-choice treatment for the infection in the United States in the late 1990s. As many as 10% of cases of gonorrhoea in the United Kingdom are now resistant to ciprofloxacin. Treatment guidelines were changed in late 2003, replacing ciprofloxacin with cefixime (Suprax) as first-line therapy for gonorrhoea.


  1. Deamer RL et al. Hypersensitivity and anaphylactoid reactions to ciprofloxacin. Ann Pharmacother 26: 1081-1084, 1992
  2. Kennedy CA et al. Ciprofloxacin-induced anaphylactoid reactions in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. West J Med 153: 563-564, 1990
  3. Knupp CA et al. A multiple-dose pharmacokinetic interaction study between didanosine (Videx) and ciprofloxacin (Cipro) in make subjects seropositive for HIV but asymptomatic. Biopharm Drug Dispos 18: 65-77, 1997

Community Consensus Statement on Access to HIV Treatment and its Use for Prevention

Together, we can make it happen

We can end HIV soon if people have equal access to HIV drugs as treatment and as PrEP, and have free choice over whether to take them.

Launched today, the Community Consensus Statement is a basic set of principles aimed at making sure that happens.

The Community Consensus Statement is a joint initiative of AVAC, EATG, MSMGF, GNP+, HIV i-Base, the International HIV/AIDS Alliance, ITPC and NAM/aidsmap

This content was checked for accuracy at the time it was written. It may have been superseded by more recent developments. NAM recommends checking whether this is the most current information when making decisions that may affect your health.

NAM’s information is intended to support, rather than replace, consultation with a healthcare professional. Talk to your doctor or another member of your healthcare team for advice tailored to your situation.